Bird Families

Purpura - types, symptoms, treatment


Sarracenia purpurea - is the most common of all Sarracenia because its range is enormous compared to its congeners.

Pitchers of Sarracenia Purpurea are small, up to 30 cm long, stocky, and have a large lip. The lid of the jug does not cover the opening of the jug. This hood is usually beautifully veined with tree-like patterns, and is covered with tough hairs pointing in the direction of the pitcher opening.

Pitchers of Sarracenia generally last for only a year at most, but pitchers of Sarracenia Purpurea survive in good condition for two years as long as they are not damaged by fire or too cold conditions. This may be part of the secret to their success. The jugs are filled with liquid that contains enzymes to aid digestion.

Causes and diagnosis of purpura

Purpura can be thrombocytopenic and non-thrombocytopenic. In the first case, the number of platelets circulating in the blood decreases, in the second, the platelet index remains unchanged.

Diseases that cause purpura: multiple myeloma, leukemia, diseases of the bone marrow or spleen, infectious diseases such as German measles or rubella. Purpura can also appear under the influence of drugs or aggressive chemicals on the body.

The external manifestations of all types of purpura are quite similar. In order to distinguish between the different types of purpura, laboratory analysis is required. Standard symptoms are: hemorrhage under the skin, bruising, petechiae (red spots with fuzzy edges). The acute form is accompanied by hematuria, nosebleeds, while the temporal index of coagulation is normal.

For proper treatment, physicians need to know the type of purpura. For this, external signs are studied and laboratory diagnostics are carried out. In the thrombocytopenic form of purpura, patients are injected with corticosteroids. In some cases, splenectomy (removal of the spleen) is indicated. Idiopathic purpura may spontaneously disappear, especially in children.

General measures for the prevention of purpura: protection from shock, injury, transfer of planned operations, tooth extraction.

Types of purpura, symptoms and treatment

Schönlein-Genoch purpura (vascular, allergic, anaphylactoid)

Schönlein-Genoch purpura (there are also references to this type of purpura as vascular, anaphylactic or allergic, which are essentially the same, and different specialists can identify this type of purpura in different ways).

In about two-thirds of cases, the disease appears after infection with an upper respiratory tract infection; skin symptoms appear on average ten days after respiratory infection. Despite the popular theory of infectious transmission, no microorganism or environmental factor has been identified as a reliable cause of Schönlein-Henoch purpura.

A distinctive feature of this type of disease is vascular inflammation in the upper layers of the skin. Other symptoms: arthritis, kidney inflammation, abdominal pain. In 90% of cases, the disease is diagnosed in children, disappearing within a few weeks. Diseases in adults are more serious, symptoms last longer, and there is a risk of irreversible kidney damage, but the probability is about 5%.

Treatment is carried out with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Hemorrhagic purpura

The widespread involvement of the body in the pathological process can lead to the appearance of symptoms such as laminitis, colic, weight loss, and disruption of the central nervous system.

Treatment consists in eliminating the root cause of the disease, dexamethasone, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressive therapy are prescribed.

Non-thrombocytopenic (idiopathic) purpura

Non-thrombocytopenic purpura is an allergic reaction of unknown origin that causes red spots on the skin. Often painless, but unaesthetic. It occurs as a result of rupture of capillaries, as a result of which a small amount of blood is released under the skin in the area of ​​the legs, arms, back or absolutely any part of the body. This blood is not absorbed, but accumulates in the tissues. This is because the capillaries are blocked by protein complexes that form during an abnormal immune response. Boys suffer from this disease more often than girls. The peak time for purple is from late autumn to winter.

Symptoms of non-thrombocytopenic purpura

Headache, fever, loss of appetite, itchy skin, red rash. This red rash, flat or slightly raised above the surface of the skin, may be small, like freckles, or slightly larger, like a bruise. At first, the rash turns purple, and then becomes rusty within 24 hours and disappears after a few weeks. Places of appearance: buttocks, abdomen, lower limbs.

Additional symptoms: muscle pain, swelling of the ankles and knees, blood in the urine, low urine volume, kidney damage. Renal failure can occur due to capillary obstruction. Sometimes in male patients, swelling of the scrotum may appear.

Treatment of non-thrombocytopenic purpura

Most cases disappear on their own without treatment, but with serious complications (for example, renal function), patients are treated in a hospital. To eliminate joint pain, anesthetic is prescribed, and corticosteroids are also indicated. If the kidneys are damaged, the level of electrolytes in the blood must be adjusted.

Allergic vasculitis

Vasculitis is an inflammation of the blood vessels. It can damage blood vessels, thicken them, scar and weaken the vascular cell membranes. There are many different types of vasculitis, some are acute and short-lived, while others can be chronic. Allergic vasculitis is an acute form of the disease.

Symptoms of allergic vasculitis

There is inflammation and redness of the skin that occurs when it comes into contact with any external stimulus. Red spots appear on the skin, which some doctors simply call purple. These spots are, as it were, raised above the surface of the skin, but they can also be flat. Their color ranges from red to purple.

Other common symptoms include joint pain, swollen lymph nodes, and kidney inflammation.

The reasonsthe appearance of allergic vasculitis can be:

  • infections,
  • chemical substances,
  • food allergens,
  • potent medicines,
  • any substance or material.

Most often, vasculitis is caused by drug interactions, but it can also occur in conjunction with certain infections or viruses. In some cases, the exact cause of this reaction cannot be identified.

Vasculitis hypersensitivity is usually caused by a drug reaction. The most common drugs that can trigger the disease are:

  • penicillin,
  • sulfonamides (a class of antibiotics),
  • some medicines for high blood pressure,
  • phenytoin.

Allergic vasculitis can also be caused by chronic bacterial infections and viruses such as HIV or hepatitis B and C. People with an autoimmune disorder called lupus can also suffer from itchy red spots on their skin. If the cause of the disease is in interaction with drugs, the symptoms appear within 7-10 days after the start of administration. Some patients may show their first symptoms as early as two to three days after starting the medication.

Allergic vasculitis treatment

The main treatment is to relieve symptoms such as itching and burning. Allergic vasculitis usually goes away on its own after a couple of weeks.To alleviate the condition of patients, antiallergic agents are used that reduce inflammation and itching, as well as corticosteroids, aspirin, herbal remedies.

Based on materials:
© 2015 DermNet New Zealand Trust
© 2005 - 2015 Healthline Networks, Inc
© 2015 Regents of the University of Minnesota.
© 2003-2015 Farlex, Inc
© 2015 Johns Hopkins Vasculitis Center
National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services
© 1996-2015 MedicineNet, Inc.